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La Fotografia

Introducción a la  Fotografía.
Con definiciones simples y sencillas en Español.



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Introduction to Photography

Part 4



The Histogram.

The histogram is simply a chart that shows the distribution of values of something. In digital photography, that something is usually brightness, but often saturation. The histogram shows you graphically how much of your image contains shadows or middle tones or highlights.


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Common Lens Problems.


Lens Diffraction:

If your using good technique and your images are still losing important detail, it may be due to lens diffraction. It's basically caused be using very small apertures to gain a greater depth of field, but can result in softening and loss of definition.

  The solution is pretty simple; Avoid using the highest (F) number on the lens where possible.



The characteristic of this effect is a darkening of the corners of the frame, where the lens is actually capturing its own sides. It's particularly noticeable when you're shooting a clear sky. The problem is something regularly associated with Wide-Angle lens, although it only becomes a major concern when you're shooting on a Full-Frame camera, which makes use of the full diameter of the lens. Vignetting can be a positive, creative tool as well; helping to drew attention to the center of the frame.

If you notice this effect try zooming in a touch. Alternatively, Photoshop lens correction tools do an excellent job correcting this situation.


Barrel Distortion:

Pictures look like they've been wrapped around a barrel, with the central areas far larger than they should be.

  Rather than standing close and zooming out, step back and zoom in.


Converging Verticals:

You'll usually see this when your shooting architecture from ground level with standard to Wide-Angle lenses. By tilting the lens up, you'll see a distortion of perspective, with the base of buildings seemingly wider than the tops.

If you don't like the effect, either hire or buy a dedicated, expensive tilt and shift lens, which removes this effect, or use a perspective tweak in Photoshop after the shot.


Lens Flare:

Include a bright light source in the frame or allow stray light to glance across the front element and you'll end up with pictures that have a ghostly, contras reducing sheen across them. You may also notice polygonal bright spots through the viewfinder, which can be distracting in the final shot.

  The answer is to keep the front element spotless and fit a lens hood. If you don't have one, or it's not deep enough to be effective, hold you hand or a piece of card out of shot just above the end of the lens to shield it.


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Part 5


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